Radio Frequency Identification is a wireless technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in Radio Frequency (RF) portion of electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify the objects. RFID is one of the methods of Automatic Identification Data Capture (AIDC) which is used to track the real time objects. The business organisations can use this system to track the real time objects. The SAP solution is working to improve the feature of tracking based on RFID. The RFID system consists of three components as antenna, transceiver and transponder (tag) to track the objects. The integration of this system with the organisation’s activities can help them track the progress of various products implementation. The business development can be initiated through the RFID system which improves the internal efficiency of the market standards.
In United Arab Emirates cities like Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah most of the industries like petroleum, oil & gas, trading, pharmaceuticals, construction materials industries, etc use this system to track the objects. The RFID tag attached to the automobile can track the progress of the production through the assembly line. The data can be tracked through the warehouse. The RFID provides specific applications for identifying the objects.
The functioning of the RFID is similar to the barcode but it gives more efficient results through unique identifier than the barcode. The RFID can be placed in diagonal manner rather than placing it at the exact position as barcode. The information can be stored electronically through the tags which is label attached to antenna. The in-built antenna and integrated circuit(IC) allows the chip to record the objects through the serial number/identification number. The chip consists of the reader to acquire the information via the radio waves emitted from the objects to store the data in the digital format on the computers.
TYPES OF RFID TAG
PASSIVE AND ACTIVE RFID
The PASSIVE RFID tag does not contain the battery, instead the electricity is passed through the reader. The passive tag captures the data from the radio waves through the magnetic field and then it triggers the circuit to store the information on the tag’s memory. These tags are less expensive to manufacture but has long life time.
The ACTIVE RFID tag is provided with the battery that can be used with the replaceable batteries for the power source to the tag’s circuitry. The active RFID have the capability to monitor and control various objects. These tags have the ability to track over the distance of more than hundred feet improving the efficiency.
WORKING OF RFID
The working methodology of the RFID is simple compared to barcodes as it can be damaged or switched. The RFID tag is so small that can attached on the object to be tracked for unique identification of the object. At the early stage the RFID was used to track the animals then slowly it is used to locate the products in automated manner. The tag contains the antenna and Integrated Circuit (IC) that reads the data from the object and then transforms it to the database that can be used for future analysis. This simple method of object identification can be used by all the companies to note the progress of their product through real time tracking.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RFID
WIRELESS – The wireless feature of the RFID is used to cover a wide range of area. The RFID system is capable to read and write data from the object without having the direct contact storing it in the host system. It can be placed at a distance of 6 meters or more to access the object remotely.
MULTIPLE ACCESS – The RFID can access multiple objects simultaneously through various RFID tags attached to the object. The system can scan and recognize thousands of tags at the same time.
UNIQUE – The RFID tag is unique in its functionality that permits the accessing only if the identification number is matched. It helps to identify the distinct properties of a single product. It gives the result rather than barcodes to detect products properties.
COST EFFECTIVE – The RFID system are cost effective since it improves the intellectual performance of the organisation through less expense solution. This technology reduces the cost of handling the product avoiding the theft and misuse.
LONG TERM – The RFID tags are known for their high quality materials. The RFID tags remain strong on high temperature without having any additional maintenance. It is reliable to resist for up to 6 hours with high temperature and pressure.
BENEFITS OF RFID
- The RFID tags are easy to be injected into the objects through which the animals and the objects can be tracked and monitored to store the data in tag for up to 2 KB.
- The security is high in RFID since the system cannot be duplicated. The data is in the encrypted format.
- The labour cost is reduced through the application of this system since it processes the information automatically reducing the man power.
- The RFID tags do not require any line of sight and produces the results with the low error rate.
- The RFID helps the organisation to manage all the data from the start of the product manufacture, to logistics maintenance and delivery to the customers in a detailed reporting process.
- The various ranges of frequencies like low, high and ultraviolet can be used for capturing the radio waves on the tags.
- The damage of the system does not affect the functionality unlike barcode as it is more efficient than those systems.
- The incoming new information can overwrite the existing information that is stored in the tag i.e. updations of information is possible.
APPLICATIONS OF RFID
The RFID is used in wide range of applications ranging from small to large purpose. It is used for.
- Supply chain management
- Security systems
- Asset tracking
- Location control
- Health care systems
- Banking (KIOSKS)
- Animal identification
- Document tracking
- People tracking
- Security systems in industries, banks, and various organisations